- a process by which
a minority or immigrant group is through contact absorbed into the
culture of another group or groups.
- A mental tendency, preference or prejudgment. Could be positive or negative.
- The action of suppressing in whole or in part something that is considered
politically or morally objectionable. Letters written by Japanese Canadians
were opened, read and in many cases pieces were blacked out or cut
out. Delivery was delayed and free discussion between friends and family
members who were separated was inhibited. The contents of the only
English language Japanese Canadian newspaper “The New Canadian” had to be approved by a censor before going to press.
- A police or military regulation requiring persons to keep off the
streets after a designated hour. Order-in-Council of Feb. 24, 1942
restricted all Japanese Canadians to their homes from sunset to sunrise
within the 100 mile protected area on the coast of BC. The RCMP enforced
restrictions on personal freedom.
- concentration camp
- A term used by many
Nisei during the war to describe interior settlements. At their peak
in the spring of 1943 these camps
held 12,177 Japanese Canadians. This figure does not include an additional
699 that were being held in the prisoner of war camp in Angler, Ont.
- Actions resulting from a particular mindset or prejudice. A means
of treating people negatively because of their group identity. Discrimination
may be based on age, ancestry, gender, language, race, religion, political
beliefs, sexual orientation, family status, physical or mental disability,
appearance or economic status. Acts of discrimination hurt, humiliate,
and isolate the victim.
- enemy alien
- An alien (foreigner) living in a country that is at war with his
country of ancestry. A term used in government notices and in the
media to describe all Japanese Canadians as enemies of the state. The
term was applied regardless of birthplace or citizenship and required
no proof of crimes against Canada.
- The work of spies. Politicians and some people in British Columbia
said that Japanese Canadians would not be loyal to Canada and would
become spies and saboteurs. The RCMP and the military said that their
investigations found no evidence to support such a claim. Nevertheless,
the evacuation was carried out as a “security precaution.”
- To move out or remove from a threatened area or place. The term used
for the removal of all people of Japanese ancestry from the “protected
area” on the Pacific coastline to places at least 160 kilometres
inland as documented in PC 1486, February 24, 1942. This process led
to the eventual resettlement of over 15,000 Japanese Canadians outside
of their original homes in British Columbia.
- To force a person to leave one's country, community, or province
as punishment. Banishment. Japanese Canadians were forced to leave
the coast of British Columbia and later were told to prove their loyalty
by moving “east of the Rockies” or be “repatriated” to Japan, a country many had never seen.
- The right to vote. Japanese in Canada
were denied the franchise in provincial elections until 1948 and in
federal elections until 1949.
- in trust
- To place something in the care of for safekeeping. All property (real
estate, businesses, cars, machinery, etc.) confiscated during the evacuation,
was given “in trust” to the Custodian of Enemy Alien Property
for safe keeping as per the powers granted in PC 2483 of March 27,
1942. This property was later sold without the consent of Japanese
Canadians to pay for the internment process.
- To be put in prison. Japanese Canadians were incarcerated in prisoner-of-war
camps and in internment camps.
- The act of confining or detaining “belligerent” or “enemy
nationals” during wartime. People of Japanese ancestry were removed
from the West Coast and dispersed to work camps, sugar beet farms,
and internment camps in the interior of BC for the duration of the
war and an additional 4 years after the end of World War II. The liberties
and movement of all internees were closely monitored and severely restricted
- issei (ees-say),
- Japanese language
terms used to describe first, second, third, and fourth generation
settlement in Canada.
- Nikkei (neek-kay)
- Means ethnically Japanese. Nikkei Kanadajin
means Canadian of Japanese ethnicity. This term is important because
it separates ethnicity
from citizenship and self-identification.
- A predetermined judgment (based on faulty interpretation) made using
wrong or distorted facts. This attitude, usually negative, is directed
toward a person or group of people. Prejudiced thinking may result
in acts of discrimination.
- The systematic effort of controlling public opinion or a course of
action by using selected facts, ideas or allegations.
- protected area
- An area extending 100 miles (about 160 kilometers) from the coast
of BC to the Cascade Mountains was deemed a secure area. This designation
gave justification and support for the public and political forces
that removed Japanese Canadians from coastal settlements in BC.
- A set of incorrect assumptions, opinions and acts resulting from
the belief that one race is inherently/genetically superior to another.
It occurs when people are not treated fairly because of their cultural
or ethnic differences. Racism may be systemic (part of institutions,
organizations, and programs) or part of the attitudes and behaviour
- To set right or make reparation by compensation or by punishment
of the wrong doer. Refers to the movement within the Japanese Canadian
community for an official apology and financial compensation, as well
as the final acknowledgement by the federal government in 1988. Under
Prime Minister Mulroney the Government of Canada gave an official apology
for the injustices it had enacted upon Japanese Canadians and announced
a financial compensation package of some $300 million.
- To move to another place. Besides the earlier “evacuation” in
1942, this term also includes the forced removal and movement of Japanese
Canadians at the end of the war with Japan in 1945. As documented in
a Department of Labour order, Japanese who were loyal to Canada were
expected to prove their loyalty by moving “east of the Rocky
Mountains.” This order was given in concert with an offer of repatriation
to Japan in
1945 - 46. In practical terms all people of Japanese ancestry were
pressured to leave BC.
- To send back to one's own country or to a place of citizenship. Order-in-Council
PC 7355 authorized the Government of Canada to provide for the “deportation” and
persons of Japanese ancestry. Those who were unwilling to resettle
east of the Rockies were considered disloyal. However, the federal
government encouraged Japanese Canadians to voluntarily “repatriate” to Japan.
- At the end of the war Japanese Canadians were strongly pressured
to establish themselves outside of British Columbia. Over 9,000 Japanese
Canadians made new homes in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.
The policy was designed to disperse those of Japanese ancestry throughout
Canada. However, the federal government failed to recognize that Japanese
Canadians were not welcome in Moose Jaw any more than they were in
Vancouver, and were being sent to another hostile environment. Not
until 1949 were Japanese Canadians allowed to return to the “protected
area” within 100 miles (160 kilometers) of the Pacific Ocean.
- The act of making good for something that is lost or taken away.
Japanese Canadians were deprived of their possessions, livelihood,
rights and freedoms from 1941 to 1949. They were victims of injustices
and were seeking restitution for these wrongs.
- An act to deliberately damage or destroy something in order to hinder
or hurt. Politicians and some people in British Columbia suspected
that Japanese Canadians would not be loyal to Canada and would become
spies and saboteurs. There is no evidence that this ever happened.
Prime Minister Mackenzie King said in the House of Commons, August
4, 1944: “It is a fact that no person of Japanese race born in
Canada has been charged with any act of sabotage or disloyalty during
the years of war.”
- The formation of belief(s) about a person or groups of people that
does not recognize individual differences. Stereotyping may be positive
or negative in character.